THE ICELANDIC RESPONSIBLE FISHERIES
Iceland responsible fisheries
The Iceland Responsible Fisheries have their own logo authorised by the Fisheries Association of Iceland (FAI), indicating Icelandic origin of fish catches in Icelandic waters and responsible fisheries management. The logo provides opportunities for stakeholders in the value chain of Icelandic seafood, Icelandic fishing vessel owners, processing plants as well as other stakeholders can apply for a permit to use the logo to highlight Icelandic origin. The logo can be used on packaging of products produced from catch of Icelandic seafood or in advertisements.
A variant of this logo will later be introduced as a verification of certification in due course. In order to preclude any misunderstanding it is emphasised that the logo does not refer to certification.
The Fisheries Association of Iceland
Founded in 1911, the role of Fisheries Association of Iceland (FAI) is to be a common venue for organizations within the fisheries and seafood sector in Iceland for the benefit of the fishing industry. Main objectives are to promote progress in the Icelandic fishing industry, and to offer services requested to governmental bodies and other stakeholders as appropriate.
The following (non-governmental) organizations are members of The Fisheries Association of Iceland:
- The Federation of Icelandic Fishing Vessel Owners (LÍÚ); www.liu.is/
- Federation of Icelandic Fish Processing Plants (SF); www.sf.is
- National Association of Small Boat Owners, Iceland (NASBO); www.smabatar.is
- The Icelandic Seamen´s Federation (SSI); www.ssi.is
- The Federation of General and Special Workers in Iceland (SGS); www.sgs.is/
- The Icelandic Union of Marine Engineers and Metal Technicians (VM); www.vm.is/
- The Icelandic Ships Officers
- Association (FFSÍ); www.skipstjorn.is/
For further information and assistance, please contact Finnur Garðarsson, Project Manager, firstname.lastname@example.org.
The fisheries management system in Iceland
Iceland has a long and proud history as one of the world‘s leading fishing nations. The highlights of Iceland‘s robust and responsible fisheries scheme are as follows:
History of Stocks, advice and decisions
Most stocks are confined to Icelandic waters although some are straddling stocks. The Marine Research Institute (MRI) conducts systematic research on the distribution, size and yield potential of the main species stocks. The MRI provides scientific advice on the total allowable catch (TAC) for each year (or fishing year, Sept.-Aug) with the objective of promoting sustainable use; The International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES) also provides advice on many stocks. The Minister for Fisheries and Agriculture decides on the TAC for each species stock based on scientific advice.
Fisheries management in Icelandic waters is primarily based on catch limitation (output control) through individual transferable quotas (ITQs);
- Each vessel is assigned a quota share (%) in each stock, initially based primarily on catch history over a reference period.
- The annual allowable catch for each vessel from each stock is obtained by multiplying the TAC of the year and the vessel‘s quota share (as a proportion).
- Quotas can be transferred between vessels; this applies both to quota shares and annual catch allotments. Quota transfer is mainly intended to promote rationalisation and thus increase profitability in the industry.
- Exceptions include: Community quotas (not based on vessel’s quota share, all other provisions apply; limited amount); summer inshore hand line (jigging) fishery (experimental in 2009, limited to 3955 tons of cod).
Discarding of commercial species is prohibited by law. Extensive area closures to fishing for the protection of juvenile fish: Large nursery areas closed on long term basis; temporary real time closures.
Fishing gear selectivity in demersal fisheries ensured through requirements for minimum mesh size and/or the use of sorting grids to allow small fish to escape capture. During peak spawning season, fishing of main spawning grounds for the major demersal fish stocks are closed.
In order to facilitate matching of the species composition of the catch and the quota portfolio for individual fishing vessels or companies, and also to reduce incentives for discard, a variety of flexibility provisions are in place. The main provisions, in addition to quota transfer, are the following:
- A provision allowing the use of catch quota for one species to count against a limited catch amount of another species.
- Auctioned catch; it is permitted to land a small fraction of the year‘s catches without use of quota; such catches go to auction and the proceeds go to a public fund for supporting research.
- It is permitted for the year‘s catch to exceed the year‘s quota by 5% in some species; the excess is then deducted from the following year‘s quota.
- It is permitted to postpone fishing for part of the quota and to transfer up to 33% of the year‘s quota to the following fishing year; postponement of fishing in considered beneficial to the growth of long-lived fish stocks.
of undersized fish in some cases (e.g. cod <50 cm) count only as half
their weight against quota; this is to discourage discards; the actual
amounts are small.
A central fishing vessel registry is maintained; only registered
vessels that have been granted a fishing licence may engage in commercial
fishing. Before embarking on a fishing trip, the vessel‘s operators must ensure
that the vessel has quota registered which suffices for the expected catch.
Recording of vessel catch quotas and catches is done in the Fisheries Directorate‘s central data base which is accessible to all; thus transparency is ensured.
All catches shall be landed in officially designated landing harbours; Accredited harbour officials weigh the catch by species and record in the central data base; Landed catch is subtracted from the vessel‘s quota. When quota is used up, the vessel owner must acquire additional quota for the vessel, else fishing must stop; failing that, the vessel loses its fishing license. The Directorate of Fisheries and The Icelandic Coast Guard monitor and control commercial fishing and the landing of catches.